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IC1: Visual Marketing

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 Pierre Chandon / Insead
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 2
      Abstract: " Is Unseen Really Unsold? Measuring the Value
                  of Point of Purchase Marketing with Eye Tracking"
 Eric Greenleaf / New York University, Stern School of Business
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 5
      Abstract: "Ratios in Proportion: Context Effects in Consumer Preferences for Rectangles"
J. Jeffrey Inman / University of Pittsburgh, Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 6
      Abstract: "Product Category-Level and Shopping Trip-Level Drivers
             of In-Store Consumer Decision Making"
Chris A. Janiszewski / University of Florida, Warrington College of Business
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 4
      Abstract: "The Role of Attention in Perception"
Edward F. McQuarrie / Santa Clara University, Leavey School of Business
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 10
      Abstract: "Differentiating the Pictorial Element in Advertising: A Rhetorical Framework"
Joan Meyers-Levy / University of Minnesota, Carlson School of Management
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 9
      Abstract: "Does Ceiling Height Affect Consumers' Processing?"
Rik Pieters / University of Tilburg
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 3
      Abstract: "Goal Control of Visual Attention to Advertising"
Priya Raghubir / University of California at Berkeley, Haas School of Business
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 7
      Abstract: " Judgments and Biases in Spatial and Temporal Judgments"
 Keith Rayner / University of Massachusetts - Amherst
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 1
      Abstract: "Eye Movements During Information-Processing Tasks"
Norbert Schwarz / University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 11
      Abstract: "Processing Fluency, Beauty and Truth: Implications for Visual Marketing"
Nader Tavassoli / London Business School
      Video: Conference Presentation, Session 8
      Abstract: "The Effect of Attending Information on Information Ignored"


IC1: Visual Marketing








 Pierre Chandon with Wes Hutchinson          
Is Unseen Really Unsold? Measuring the Value of Point-of-Purchase Marketing with Eye Tracking Data
In today’s cluttered retail environments, creating consumer pull through memory-based brand equity is not enough. Marketers also must create “in-store visual lift” for their brands, i.e., incremental consideration triggered by in-store visual attention. Yet, managers have limited tools at their disposal to measure the return on point-of-purchase marketing, to decide which brands should receive enhanced POP marketing and to make trade-offs between different POP marketing tools, such as the number of shelf facings, shelf position or price.

Our first goal is to decompose brand consideration into pre-store memory-based consideration and in-store visual lift using readily available commercial eye-tracking data. To achieve this goal, we build a decision-path model of visual attention and brand consideration and test it in collaboration with Perception Research Services (PRS), the leading eye-tracking market research company in the U.S.

This method allows us to measure the return on POP marketing in terms of incremental consideration or choice, rather than just in terms of incremental attention. The model also allows us to predict each brand's maximum consideration (if it has a 100% chance of being seen) and its “visual responsiveness” to improvements in visual salience. In the two product categories studied, fruit juices and detergents, we find that in-store visual attention doubles, on average, the pre-store memory-based probability of consideration.

In a follow-up work, we experimentally manipulate shelf position, the number of facings and price in two categories, pain relievers and soaps. We find strong differences in the ability of each POP marketing activity to increase visual attention and brand consideration.

 Eric Greenleaf  with Priya Raghubir        
Ratios in Proportion: Context Effects in Consumer Preferences for Rectangles
An ancient controversy in aesthetics is whether people prefer certain proportions for the sides of rectangles. While researchers in aesthetics and psychology have given considerable attention to consumer preferences for rectangles, scientific investigations of this question have produced inconsistent results. However, this topic has attracted relatively little research in marketing, even though rectangles are perhaps the most common shape that consumers encounter in package design, product design, and print advertising. We examine rectangular preferences in a consumer domain. We find that people do prefer certain ratios of rectangular products and packages, and these preferences tend to have an inverse-U shape across the range from the 1:1 (square) to the 1:2 rectangles, so that people favor a range of proportions rather than any single proportion alone. Furthermore, we add to existing knowledge of rectangular preferences by examining these effects for actual rectangular products and packages rather than abstract rectangles. Perhaps most importantly, we find support for our hypotheses that these preferences depend on whether the context is relatively serious versus relatively frivolous. We also show that the ratios of rectangular products offered in the marketplace appear to reflect this context effect. Finally, we find that rectangular ratios affect product perceptions that are antecedents to purchase intentions and preferences.
 J. Jeffrey Inman          
Product Category-Level and Shopping Trip-Level Drivers of In-Store Consumer Decision Making
Over two-thirds of purchases involve some sort of in-store decision. In this research, we explore product category factors that increase the likelihood of engaging in unplanned purchases by triggering need recognition or impulse purchases, consumer-initiated behaviors that seek to limit these effects and the interaction of these factors. We employ a hierarchical modeling approach to test our hypotheses, using a dataset of in-store intercept interviews conducted with 4,200 consumers across 14 cities. Our results support the predictions that list use, non-major trip, limiting aisles visited and paying by cash are effective self-control strategies - all decrease the likelihood of making unplanned purchases. Moreover, our results also show that the effects of these self-control strategies on unplanned purchases can moderate category-level factors such as hedonicity, purchase frequency and display status. Our results are supportive of a model that predicts that self-control strategies can help limit unplanned purchases.
 Chris A. Janiszewski          
The Role of Attention in Perception
The study of perception is guided by metaphors of the mind and the role perception plays within the context of the metaphor. For example, consider the metaphor that the mind is a machine or that the mind operates like a computer program. In this metaphor, perception is an act that allows the system to represent the environment as a series of symbolic concepts that can be input into higher-order processes. Consistent with the computer program metaphor, an identical input should be perceived in a constant fashion (1) by the same person on different occasions or (2) by different people on the same occasion. The assumption of perceptual invariance allows researchers to make inferences about higher-order processes that manipulate these perceptual inputs (e.g., document information processes), without worrying about the variability of perceptual inputs. The computer metaphor also directs the research of those that focus on the act of perception. If perception is like software, then the goal of perceptual / attention research should be to find the fundamental acts of this subroutine (i.e., decipher the programming code). Research on feature identification, feature integration and visual search all seek to discover how a perception is built.

An alternative metaphor of the mind is the neural metaphor. In this metaphor, the mind is a muscle composed of neurons that must learn to execute motor and, subsequently, conceptual acts. To execute any one simple act, a considerable amount of parallel processing and coordination must occur. In this metaphor, perception is the act of isolating the neural activation that is responsible for the execution of motor and conceptual acts (i.e., perception is a nonconscious representation). As the individual develops a larger array of motor and cognitive abilities, perceptual processes are used to (1) identify patterns of neural stimulation that are useful for goal achievement and (2) identify the differentiating characteristics of neural activation that lead to unexpected, but relevant, outcomes. In this type of model, systems for initiating motor acts, representing sequences of neural activation and labeling the cognitive concepts related to these sequences are all related through their overlapping neural activation. Thus, perception of the environment can be (1) nonconscious because it discriminates patterns and sequences of neural activation and (2) motivating because motor and cognitive representations rely on common neural activation.

This talk will contrast the machine metaphor and the neural metaphor of perception and discuss the implications of these metaphors for assumptions about the purpose of attention. I will discuss how each metaphor can (1) shape an agenda for research on attention and (2) guide the interpretation of the data collected to investigate attentional processes.

 Edward McQuarrie          
Differentiating the Pictorial Element in Advertising: A Rhetorical Framework
A rhetorical framework consists of a systematic differentiation of some message element systematically linked to some differentiation of audience response. In contemporary rhetorical studies of persuasion the model differentiating audience response will generally be derived from some existing cognitive or social psychological model of how consumers respond to messages. The unique rhetorical contribution thus lies in the differentiation of the message element, together with the commitment to link this differentiation back to audience response.

This paper develops a new framework for differentiating the pictures that appear in magazine advertisements. Although rhetoric began as an analysis of verbal language, there is no intrinsic reason why the rhetorical impulse to differentiate message elements cannot be applied to non-verbal elements. The new framework attempts to exhaustively specify the kinds of pictorial manipulations available to advertisers within the confines of a two-dimensional and unmoving representation. Prior work in rhetoric (e.g., McQuarrie and Mick, 1999; Phillips and McQuarrie, 2003) has tended to focus on a single differentiation, that between metaphorical and non-metaphorical pictures. Related semiotic work (e.g., Larsen, Luna and Peracchio, 2004) has tended to focus on discrete visual elements or constituents. The new framework focuses on pictures rather than on their constitutive visual elements, and offers a system of distinctions among kinds of pictures, rather than a single distinction.

An interesting offshoot of the development of the framework is a demonstration that pictorial strategies in American magazine advertisements have changed significantly in recent times. Pictorial strategies that were common as recently as the 1980s are relatively scarce today, and strategies that were infrequent twenty years ago have become more common. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sort of changes in both the advertising environment and in consumer response to advertising that might be hypothesized to explain these changes in the choice of pictorial strategies.

 Joan Meyers-Levy          
Does Ceiling Height Affect Consumers' Processing?
Researchers as well as practitioners generally embrace the view that structural aspects of our visible environment can affect not only our emotions and behavior, but also our thought processes. Nonetheless, very little empirical research has investigated such aspects rigorously, and even less has shed light on precisely which structural features can affect our thinking, how and why this occurs and what conditions may moderate the emergence of such effects. Drawing on elaboration theory (Einstein and Hunt, 1980; Meyers-Levy, 1991) and basic memory notions involving spreading activation, the present research investigates these questions as they pertain to ceiling height. Specifically, we posit that, provided people notice the height of a ceiling, a high versus a low ceiling prompts individuals to mentally activate a network of concepts associated with “freedom” versus “confinement.” In turn, these networks of concepts shape how people process incoming information by inducing the use of relational versus item-specific data elaboration, respectively. Relational elaboration involves going beyond the provided information by identifying often distal and abstract associations that connect or integrate disparate pieces of data, whereas item-specific elaboration activates associations to the individualized specifics of each piece of the provided information (Einstein and Hunt, 1980; Meyers-Levy, 1991). This research aims to assess this theory and its moderators, important consequences on individuals’ product categorization and various judgments, and the underlying mechanism.
 Rik Pieters with Michel Wedel          
Goal Control of Visual Attention to Advertising
We investigate the influence that consumers’ goals during exposure to advertising have on visual attention to advertising. We take two different perspectives, using data from an eye-tracking experiment on 220 participants exposed to seventeen print advertisements, with a free viewing and four processing goal conditions (cognitive and affective goals, directed respectively at the ad as a whole or at the brand). First, we investigate how processing goals influence spatiotemporal selectivity, i.e., how covert attention over the ad exposure time switches between two states -- identification and exploration -- presumably reflecting activity of the “what” and “where” streams in the visual brain. We find that ad perception predominantly starts in the identification state and ends in the exploration state, and rapidly switches about 5 times between these states during exposure. Processing goals affect the switching frequency between states, and the duration of the identification but not the exploration state. Second, we investigate the effects of processing goals on object selectivity, i.e., how covert attention selects specific structural objects in the print ads for more increased processing -- the brand, headline, body text and pictorial. We find that an ad-memorization goal encouraged attention to the pictorial, body text and brand. A brand-learning goal promoted attention to the body text, but inhibited attention to the pictorial. These findings jointly demonstrate how processing goals during exposure to advertising have systematic and rapid effects on perceptual processing as evidenced through eye-movements. They show how the attention system manages the task of deriving meaning from ads as complex scenes, and how processing goals impinge on them, and they have implications for theories of advertising processing and testing.
 Priya Raghubir          
Judgments and Biases in Spatial and Temporal Judgments
In this talk I will summarize classic and contemporary findings regarding how people make judgments regarding Numerosity, Length and Distance, Area, Volume and Time. Common themes in the biases documented for each of these dimensions will be highlighted and differences examined. The goal is to understand whether there is a common perceptual system that guides humans’ ability to understand and, therefore, navigate time and space. Common themes that emerge across a study of biases in these different dimensions include the phenomenon of “regression to the mean” (where larger units are underestimated and smaller units are overestimated), the inappropriate use of a salient cue as an anchor (e.g., elongation in estimates of area or volume, direct distance in estimates of Numerosity, distance, length and trend, and local maxima and minima in estimates of volatility in a stock, maximum speed to estimate average speed, variance to estimate mean times) and the inadequate adjustment of the salient cue to make unbiased judgments. I will draw on my own research to illustrate that these questions span a large number of domains including judgments regarding the lengths of waiting lines, the distance of a route, the growth rate of a stock, the volatility of a stock, the size of a container, and the choice of a route. I will then relate biases in time and space judgments to inferences people draw from spatial cues, such as size of an object (e.g., the prominence of a free gift in an advertisement) and centrality of position (e.g., products in a shelf space array, candidates in a group interview, items in a multiple choice list).
 Keith Rayner          
Eye Movements During Information Processing Tasks
The characteristics of eye movements in reading, scene perception and visual search will first be reviewed. I will also discuss research on the size of the perceptual span (or effective visual field) and eye movement control in these tasks. A model of eye movement control in reading, the EZ-Reader model, will be described. Implications of the research for looking at ads also will be discussed, as will research directly examining where people look in advertisements.
 Norbert Schwarz with Piotr Winkielman          
Processing Fluency, Beauty and Truth: Implications for Visual Marketing
The fluency with which perceivers can process new information influences a variety of judgments that are of interest to consumer researchers. Most notably, high processing fluency elicits a positive affective response that can be captured with psychophysiological measures. This affective response feeds into judgments of beauty and liking; and if the same object is evaluated more favorably the easier it is to process. Moreover, high processing fluency results in a subjective experience of familiarity, which feeds into judgments of truth. Hence, a given statement is more likely to be accepted as true the easier it is to process. That processing fluency influences judgments of beauty as well as truth sheds new light on the assertion that “beauty is truth, truth is beauty” (Keats). Variables that influence perceivers’ processing fluency include visual variables (such as figural goodness, figure-ground contrast, stimulus repetition, symmetry and prototypicality), semantic variables (such as conceptual primes or relevant conceptual contexts) and previous experience (such as repeated exposure). We review experimental research and discuss its implications for visual marketing.
Nader Tavassoli          
The Effect of Attending Information on Information Ignored
Attending a visual target among distractors results in an automatic process of ignoring the distractors. Research on 'negative priming' has demonstrated that the subsequent processing of these distractors is inhibited (slower identification). In contrast, research on 'repetition priming' has shown that the subsequent processing of the target stimulus is facilitated (faster identification). The latter effect is consistent with the 'mere exposure' effect, where previously encountered information is evaluated more positively because it is processed more fluently (even when not actively attended). However, the literature on the mere exposure effect has not examined how stimuli are evaluated that had previously been ignored while other information was actively attended. A recent paper by Raymond, Fenske and Tavassoli (Psychological Science, 2003) suggests that stimuli are evaluated less positively when they had been merely ignored than when they are seen for the first time. This effect on previously encountered information is, therefore, in the opposite direction of the mere exposure effect. However, it is consistent with the notion that processing fluency affects evaluations as the processing of previously ignored stimuli is inhibited.

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